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A Library Guide to Jung's Collected Works

Explore Jungian psychology resources available from the Pacifica Graduate Library

Reference publications: Anima/Animus

Jung on Anima/Animus

Jung's essays on Anima/Animus from the Collected Works:

Suggested readings adapted from Hopcke's (1999) A guided tour of the collected works of C. G. Jung, pp. 91-95.

Additional resources on Anima/Animus


Print books available from the library:

McKenzie, S. (2006). Queering gender: Anima/animus and the paradigm of emergence. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 51(3), 401–421.
"An exploration into the world of the queer others of gender and sexuality moves us beyond the binary opposition of male/masculinity and female/femininity in our understanding of gender and expands the meaning of gender and sexuality for all humans. A revision of Jungian gender theory that embraces all genders and sexualities is needed not only to inform our clinical work but also to allow us to bring Jungian thought to contemporary gender theory and to cultural struggles such as gay marriage. The cognitive and developmental neurosciences are increasingly focused on the importance of body biology and embodied experience to the emergence of mind. In my exploration of gender I ask how gender comes to be experienced in a developing body and how those embodied gender feelings elaborate into a conscious category in the mind, a gender position. My understanding of emergent mind theory suggests that one's sense of gender, like other aspects of the mind, emerges very early in development from a self-organizing process involving an individual's particular body biology, the brain, and cultural environment. Gendered feeling, from this perspective, would be an emergent aspect of mind and not an archetypal inheritance, and the experiencing body would be key to gender emergence. A revised Jungian gender theory would transcend some of the limitations of Jung's anima/animus (A/A) gender thinking allowing us to contribute to contemporary gender theory in the spirit of another Jung; the Jung of the symbolic, the mythic, and the subtle body. This is the Jung who invites us to the medial place of the soul, bridging the realm of the physical body and the realm of the spirit." [Read more]

       APA PsycINFO

Phoenix, E. E. (2019). Goddess Consciousness: The Power of Inanna as Revolutionary Ecofeminist Archetype. Psychological Perspectives, 62(2/3), 193–208.
"A robust study of the ecofeminist archetypes in ancient goddess literature, particularly the Sumerian myth of Inanna, can assist in facilitating the global shift in consciousness necessary to alleviate environmental destruction and the human cost of patriarchal capitalism by resolving the wounded anima/animus in our collective unconscious. The human and ecological costs of patriarchal capitalism are the result of placing material wealth over life, just as the masculine is placed over the feminine. To guide any permanent cognitive shift, we humans have historically and intuitively drawn upon archetypes and symbols to give meaning to our lives and inform our transformations. Jung pointed out the relationship between the wounded anima/animus in the personal and collective unconscious and our crises of modernity. Ultimately, we long to resolve this disconnect with our ancestral wisdom. The Sumerian myth of Inanna has been "useful in psychological processes of contemporary women and men," particularly the myth as recorded by the Sumerian poet Enheduanna that includes her reclamation of women's sexual power, and it can serve as a powerful resource in facilitating the cognitive shift necessary to arrest these individual and collective crises. The result of this cognitive shift is the development of goddess consciousness." [Read more]

       APA PsycINFO

Toub, G. (2013, October). Jung and Gender: Masculine and Feminine Revisited. The Jung Page.
"Last December I was invited by our local Jung Society to participate in a panel discussion on Jung and gender. I was specifically asked to discuss how I saw Jung's ideas about masculine and feminine as relevant or out-dated in my analytic work. After giving it some thought, I concluded that my experience over the past 20 years was that Jung's ideas were both relevant and out-dated. It is difficult to discuss this topic generally. Some of my clients find Jung's concepts regarding masculine and feminine extremely useful and enlightening. For example, the notion of an inner man or inner woman is helpful to many of them. This Jungian construct seems to fit their experience and assists them in understanding their dreams. But to others, these ideas about gender are foreign and unacceptable, especially when it comes to the narrower definitions Jung gave to concepts such as the anima and animus." [Read more]

       Open Access