Individuation: "C. G. Jung defined individuation, the therapeutic goal of analytical psychology belonging to the second half of life, as the process by which a person becomes a psychological individual, a separate indivisible unity or whole, recognizing his innermost uniqueness; and he identified this process with becoming one’s own self or self-realization, which he distinguished from “ego-centeredness” and individualism. The self, the totality of personality and archetype of order, is superordinate to the ego, embracing consciousness and the unconscious; as the center and circumference of the whole psyche, the self is our life’s goal, the most complete expression of individuality (Jung, 1916/1928, 1939a, 1944, 1947/1954, 1963). The aim of individuation, equated with the extension of consciousness and the development of personality, is to divest the self of its false wrappings of the persona, the mask the personality uses to confront the world, and the suggestive power of numinous unconscious contents. While individuation appears to be opposed to collective standards, it is not antagonistic to them, but only differently oriented and never isolated from collective relationships and society. Nevertheless, the stunting ofindividuation by the individual’s adherence to social norms is injurious to his vitality and disastrous for his moral development (Jung, 1921, 1916/1928).") [Read more]
Jung, C. G. (1976). Adaptation, Individuation and Collectivity (R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). In H. Read et al. (Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung: Vol. 18. The symbolic life (pp. 449-454). Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1935) https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400851010.1
Jung, C. G. (1968). Conscious, unconscious, and individuation (R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). In H. Read et al. (Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung: Vol. 9 pt. 1. Archetypes and the collective unconscious (2nd ed., pp. 275-289). Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1939) https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400850969.275
Jung, C. G. (1968). A study in the process of individuation (R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). In H. Read et al. (Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung: Vol. 9 pt. 1. Archetypes and the collective unconscious (2nd ed., pp. 290-354). Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1950) https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400850969.290
Jung, C. G. (1968). Concerning mandala symbolism (R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). In H. Read et al. (Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung: Vol. 9 pt. 1. Archetypes and the collective unconscious (2nd ed., pp. 355-384). Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1950) https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400850969.355
Jung, C. G. (1969). Transformation symbolism in the Mass (R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). In H. Read et al. (Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung: Vol. 11. Psychology and religion (2nd ed., pp. 201-296). Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1954) https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400850983.201
Jung, C. G. (1970). The undiscovered self (present and future) (R. F. C. Hull, Trans.). In H. Read et al. (Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung: Vol. 10. Civilization in transition (2nd ed., pp. 247-305). Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1957) https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400850976.247
Bortz, M. (2011). Carrying the fire: Individuation toward the mature masculine and telos of cultural myth in Cormac McCarthy’s No Country for Old Men and The Road. Jung Journal: Culture & Psyche, 5(4), 28–42. https://doi.org/10.1525/jung.2011.5.4.28
Abstract: "This alchemical hermeneutical study analyzes Cormac McCarthy's novels No Country for Old Men and The Road as cultural dreams using Jungian and post-Jungian theory. McCarthy’s work elucidates the archetypal process of individuation toward the mature masculine in our time. Following McCarthy’s imagery and James Hillman's work, I focus on the split in the senex-puer archetype that structures the masculine psyche as the ultimate psychological site of our cultural dissociation. I also examine the teleological implications in the novel regarding the evolution of the God-image, which reflects man's understanding of the objective psyche, as well as the nature and psychological function of human evil. "
Cambray, J. (2019). Enlightenment and individuation: Syncretism, synchronicity and beyond. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 64(1), 53–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5922.12467
Abstract: "This paper opens with a personal introduction to the topic of syncretism within the context of a comparison of enlightenment associated with Eastern religious traditions and individuation as experienced through Jungian analysis. A brief exploration of the recent scholarly revival of interest in syncretism follows. Some close parallels with Jungian theory are highlighted, especially in the work of Timothy Light. Applications to the syncretic trends in Tang culture along the Silk Road(s) suggest deeper patterns of interconnectedness lie at the heart of these trends. A complex systems view highlights similarities between syncretic connections and non-local aspects of synchronistic field events. The final section attempts to extend this approach to innovation in general terms through the recently articulated concept of the 'adjacent possible' from the writing of Stuart Kauffman. From this, the notion of a collective pre-conscious dimension to the psyche is extrapolated. The unifying thread of acausal emergent forms provides a potential synthetic network for these phenomena."
Cremen, S. N. (2019). Vocation as psyche’s call: A depth psychological perspective on the emergence of calling through symptoms at midlife. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 19(1), 41–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10775-018-9367-4
Abstract: "Vocation, as distinct from career, is not something one chooses but something to which one is called. Bringing a depth psychological perspective to debates around calling, I argue that surrendering the ego or personal will into a relationship with the unconscious psyche allows one’s calling to emerge. Using a hybrid qualitative approach drawing on hermeneutics and incorporating interviews with midlife adults, the research shows how calling can arise through darkness, disruption and trouble, paralleling a process of initiation in traditional cultures. Applications of Jungian concepts including psyche, shadow, persona and individuation are discussed. Vocational research and practice implications are raised."
Hoffman, D. (2014). Becoming beautiful: The aesthetics of individuation. Psychological Perspectives, 57(1), 50–64.
Abstract: "How does beauty contribute to the process of individuation? C. G. Jung's articulation of the value of aesthetic expression for psychological development emerged from his personal engagement with the psychological turmoil he suffered when his intimate friendship with Sigmund Freud was severed. He learned to work with and integrate his experiences by giving them creative form. But for Jung, in the progression toward wholeness, beauty is only beneficial to the extent that it aptly captures an inner experience, so that its meaning can then be discerned and morally engaged. Such meaning and moral engagement subordinate and supersede concerns for beauty. In contrast, this article proposes that beauty is essential to the entire process of individuation. By returning to the origins of Western conceptions of truth, goodness, and beauty in the thought of Plato, concerns for truth (meaning) and goodness (morality) are shown to engage the intellect and will respectively, but only beauty moves the heart by awakening love. When beauty is relegated away, so is love. Wholeness then lacks heart and is left incomplete. Beauty completes wholeness. And ultimately, from Plato's perspective, wholeness itself is a form of beauty. So when coupled with Jung's conception of individuation as a process of becoming whole, psychological development can be seen as a process of becoming beautiful. In the end, based on factors related to his estrangement from Freud, Jung may have resisted giving greater prominence to beauty as a way to keep their perspectives distinct."
Katsky, P. (2021). Enlightenment, individuation, and nonduality: Reflections on a dream. Jung Journal: Culture & Psyche, 15(1), 104–128. https://doi-org.pgi.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/19342039.2021.1862601
Abstract: "This paper explores the connections between the concepts of enlightenment and individuation, focusing in particular on individuals with significant experience in both traditions. Nondual or mystical experiences are contextualized as aspects of the religious function of the psyche. Experiences occurring in late-stage individuation are examined and compared to aspects of the Zen Ox-Herding Pictures, and mind states characteristic of the practice of depth psychotherapy and meditation are reviewed. The paper concludes with a dream image drawing together Eastern and Western descriptions of the levels of the psyche."